For an extended period of time, the process industries have been relying heavily on modeling and simulation to improve their plant designs. Commercial as well as proprietary software tools are used for the validation of design models against plant data (pilot plant, full-scale reference plant, etc.), its adaptation to site specifications and its economic optimization. Economics generally improve further as such plants are deeply integrated with site infrastructure and other production plants.
Currently, trends and new developments such as deep learning, system digitalization, integrated engineering tools and smart plants resonate strongly within industry. These developments could significantly alter existing process design methodologies, since greater complexities in design, construction and operation become manageable. In this context, this presentation aims at giving an overview about the state of methods, the tools in use and the path forward.
Electric power transmission systems spread across large geographic areas present significant challenges to the engineers. Operating the system stably while maintaining voltage and frequency variations within narrow tolerance margins require careful long term planning as well as short term operational planning.
These planning efforts of utility engineers are supported by significant research and development efforts of various international organizations. As a result of these planning efforts power system outages that impact widespread regions are very rare. Over the years, power system community has acquired significant experience related to the operation of traditional power systems where the generation is predominantly based on synchronous generators. However, the large scale penetration of renewable energy is expected to present new challenges. The renewably energy generation is interfaced to the transmission system with the use of power electronic converters. The dynamic response characteristics of power electronic based generation are much different from conventional generators. Specifically, the converter based generators do not contribute to the system inertia and thus can potentially make the power system vulnerable following system events such and line faults.
Power outages that effect large geographic regions are rare. In most reported cases of blackouts, the event was triggered by an improbable contingency. The keynote will present number of blackout events including a Sri Lankan example. Special protection or remedial action schemes that are typically used to help maintain system stability in the event of extreme contingencies will be outlined during the presentation. The key characteristics of renewable energy generators that can impact system stability will be presented.
A sustainable and environmental friendly polymer MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) fabrication technology has been developed using thermal imprinting and polishing process. MEMS structures with minimum size of 2μm and maximum aspect ratio of 15 were formed by the polymer MEMS fabrication technology. In this paper, PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) which has several advantages such as lower fabrication cost, more flexible, softer, transparency and biocompatible, etc., was used for MEMS actuators and a sensor utilizing small Young’s modulus and large thermal expansion coefficient. As the demonstration of the proposed polymer MEMS fabrication technology, comb drive electrostatic micro actuators, electrothermal micro actuators and a capacitive micro accelerometer were fabricated and characterized. For the reliability evaluation of the polymer MEMS, the fatigue testing of micro-sized PMMA structures have been carried out. It was able to obtain a fatigue life 1.0×107 cycles under 92MPa bending stress. The proposal polymer MEMS process has been confirmed it is promising as a sustainable MEMS production technology.
Flooding in Colombo and environs has for many years been hampering public life and obstructing traffic and commercial activities on a regular basis. The flooding has three major causes: a) lack of outfall capacity, b) lack of storage capacity, and c) bottlenecks in the river and canal system (bridges, culverts, narrow river bends, blocking bridge piers/abutments, pipeline crossings, etc.).
In 2012 the World Bank and the Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) agreed upon a loan for a Metro Colombo Urban Development Project (MCUDP). The overall Project Development Objective of the Loan is to support the GoSL in:
The project consists of three components:
In addition, apart from structural measures a number of non-structural measures are being considered to strengthen the flood management capacity, such as a Real-Time Control (RTC) System, and/or a Flood Early Warning System (FEWS). In 2015, the Government of Sri Lanka announced an ambitious plan to develop the Western Province to a large Megalopolis, and a new ministry, the Ministry of Megapolis and Western Development (MMWD) was established to implement the programme. Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development corporation that implement the Metro Colombo Development Project also comes under MMWD. For the Ministry of Megapolis and Western Development assessing short term and long-term flood risks is important to safeguard its investment and ensure sustainable urban development.
Thus it was decided to enhance the scope of the proposed RTC to incorporate also current and future risk assessment. A new facility to handle Flood Control and Water Management is currently being setup that will: